This is accomplished by building multi-variable analyses that model the combined effects of the factors with significant associations. Fig 2 provides a comprehensive summary of the models included in this collection and illustrates the direction and magnitude of effect for each factor highlighted in Fig 1. While looking across models Fig 1 reveals themes with respect to how independent variables influence welfare, looking within models provides insight into to the role each variable plays with respect to each outcome, which can inform strategies to apply this information to the practice of elephant care.
Directional effects were normalized and are represented as gradations of positive and negative associations with welfare based on association with welfare outcomes. Shown with a positive direction are factors that decreased the risk of performing stereotypic behavior 1 , [ 60 ]; decreased the odds of ovarian acyclicity 2 , [ 63 ]; decreased the odds of being hyperprolactinemic 2 , [ 63 ]; decreased the risk of persistent foot problems 3 , [ 58 ]; decreased the odds of musculoskeletal problems of the limbs 3 , [ 58 ]; decreased the odds of high body condition scores i.
Comparisons of magnitude of effect should be made within outcome only. The papers presented in this collection contribute significantly to the field of zoo animal welfare science with respect to both its process and its products. Collectively, the studies established a model for multi-institutional zoo animal welfare research by leveraging data contributed by many individual elephants from a diverse array of zoos. This process yielded specific metrics and identified risk factors that can inform progress toward population-level and individual elephant welfare goals. Although epidemiological analyses of the kind presented in this collection are by nature only correlational, the results of these studies provide a strong starting point for additional experimental work as they point clearly toward several aspects of housing and management that were found to be strongly associated with the welfare of zoo elephants.
Importantly, many of the variables highlighted by this research are modifiable, and can be monitored to determine if the predicted effects on welfare outcomes are subsequently achieved. Forthcoming from the data collected in this study will be additional analyses of health and disease, keeper-elephant relationships, and individual differences in elephant personality in relation to welfare outcomes.
Looking ahead, we envision future studies that build upon this model by refining the metrics we have presented, incorporating additional and emerging measures of animal welfare, and integrating experimental components to further elucidate the complex and important connections between the daily lives of zoo animals and their physical and psychological states.
Finally, sincere thanks to the people and elephants at each of the following zoos for incredible participation and support of the project:. Employers provided financial support in the form of authors' salaries as follows: Honolulu Zoo KC. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. PLoS One. Published online Jul Cheryl L. Mench , 2, 3 Kathy Carlstead , 4 and Jennifer N. Hogan 1. Joy A. Jennifer N. Sadie Jane Ryan, Editor. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
AWARE Institute is a commercial entity founded by CM in and provides animal welfare assessment, research and education services to zoos and aquariums. These interests do not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials, as detailed online in the guide for authors. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Data Availability Statement For reasons relating to protection of the facilities and animals included in this study, access restrictions apply to the individual-level data underlying the findings. Introduction Scientifically addressing questions regarding zoo elephant welfare is timely and relevant because of the broad public interest in the care and management of animals in zoos and aquariums that exists today.
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Animal Welfare Science in Zoos Animal welfare science as applied in zoos aims to determine the best possible husbandry practices to promote the welfare of individuals of all species. The Need for Zoo Elephant Welfare Research Although elephant welfare and conservation are clear priorities for zoos, several authors [ 43 — 45 ] have identified key gaps in knowledge of elephant biology and care. The Collection: Epidemiological Investigations of North American Zoo Elephant Welfare We have organized this collection of nine papers to reflect the methods of epidemiological studies.fellmontlescfacre.ml/nuclear-chemistry/internationale-woche-der-elektronik-in.pdf
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Open in a separate window. Fig 1. The associations between each welfare outcome and its independent variables are represented by connecting lines. Sociality Both African and Asian elephants exhibit complex and elaborate patterns of sociality in the wild. Housing The topic of space is rarely absent from discussions about zoo elephant welfare.
Principles and Techniques for Zoo Management, Second Edition
Management Factors Although feeding, training, exercise, husbandry and environmental enrichment programs are all required elements for zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums AZA , there has been little previous research that measures these practices or tests their associations with elephant welfare.
Fig 2. Relative impact of input variables for each model described in the papers that comprise this collection. Future Directions The papers presented in this collection contribute significantly to the field of zoo animal welfare science with respect to both its process and its products. Data Availability For reasons relating to protection of the facilities and animals included in this study, access restrictions apply to the individual-level data underlying the findings.
References 1. Office of the Federal Register. Harrison R. Animal Machines. New York: Ballantine Books; Brambell R. Farm animal welfare council press statement ; Animal Welfare. General Principles for the welfare of animals in production systems: The underlying science and its application.
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Fraser D. Ames, IA: Wiley Blackwell; The Sciences of Animal Welfare. Mason G, Rushen J. The usefulness of measuring glucocorticoids to assess animal welfare. Journal of Animal Science. Assessment of positive emotions in animals to improve their welfare. Physiology and Behavior. Assessment of positive welfare: a review.
The Veterinary Journal. Rushen J. Changing concepts of farm animal welfare: bridging the gap between applied and basic research. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. Animal welfare and epidemiology—across species, across disciplines, and across borders. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science. An epidemiological approach to welfare research in zoos: The elephant welfare project. The Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply: A unique public—private partnership for conducting research on the sustainability of animal housing systems using a multistakeholder approach. Mench JA. Weeks C. Grandin T.
Melfi VA. There are big gaps in our knowledge, and thus approach, to zoo animal welfare: a case for evidence-based zoo animal management. Animal welfare science: Recent publication trends and future research priorities. Shepherdson D. Non-invasive assessment of adrenal activity associated with husbandry and behavioral factors in the North America clouded leopard population.
Clubb R, Mason G. Captivity effects on wide-ranging carnivores. Relevance of management and feeding regimens on life expectancy in captive deer. Whitman JC, Wielebnowski N. Animal-based welfare monitoring: Using keeper ratings as an assessment tool. Ward SJ, Melfi V. The implications of husbandry training on zoo animal response rates.
Hosey G. A preliminary model of human—animal relationships in the zoo. Carlstead K. Visitors excite primates in zoos. Davey G. Gosling SD. Be the first to like this. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. You just clipped your first slide!
ISBN 13: 9780226440095
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Visibility Others can see my Clipboard. The standard text for all courses in zoo biology, Wild Mammals in Captivity will, in its new incarnation, continue to be used by zoo managers, animal caretakers, researchers, and anyone with an interest in how to manage animals in captive conditions. Devra G. It is a fitting testament to Dr. This book is a good place to start for any zoo professional to become updated with the current direction.
This does not mean that it is the final word on all that is out there and all the authors admit that, but I think this what makes it a must read. The wealth of information in all of these chapters should lead us down the next ten years and beyond to create zoos that are examples of superior welfare. Convert currency. Add to Basket.
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