Vertue's plan should be treated with a degree of caution. There is new research into London's fortifications currently underway. The research will be published in due course. Over the years, much of my research into London's Civil War defences has been published. This title describes how both the Parliamentarians and the Royalists made use of new fortification techniques throughout the course of this conflict. Peter Harrington is Curator of the Anne S. A native of Manchester, England, his research interests include the archaeology of the English Civil War, and artists and war, and he has written numerous articles and books.
Visit Seller's Storefront. We guarantee the condition of every book as it's described on the Abebooks web sites. If you've changed your mind about a book that you've ordered, please use the Ask bookseller a question link to contact us and we'll respond within 2 business days. Shipping costs are based on books weighing 2. If your book order is heavy or oversized, we may contact you to let you know extra shipping is required. List this Seller's Books. Payment Methods accepted by seller. Bookseller: J. This practice gave the impression that many guns were in use when only a few were actually being used.
Fortification : Something that makes a defensive position stronger, like high mounds of earth to protect cannon or spiky breastworks to slow an enemy charge. Fortifications may be man-made structures or a part of the natural terrain. Man-made fortifications could be permanent mortar or stone or temporary wood and soil. Natural fortifications could include waterways, forests, hills and mountains, swamps and marshes.
The furloughed soldier carried papers which described his appearance, his unit, when he left and when he was due to return. Gabions : pronounced gey-bee-en Cylindrical wicker baskets which were filled with rocks and dirt, often used to build field fortifications or temporary fortified positions. Garrison : A group of soldiers stationed at a military post. Green Troops : Phrase used to describe soldiers who were either new to the military or had never fought in a battle before.
Hardtack : Hardtack is a term used to describe the hard crackers often issued to soldiers of both sides during the Civil War. These crackers consisted of nothing more than flour, water, and salt. They were simple and inexpensive to make in very large quantities. However, these crackers became almost rock solid once they went stale.
Although it saw use in the early stages of the war, soldiers quickly learned that it cut off circulation around the head and face, leading to the eventual abandonment of the havelock. A howitzer's projectiles had a smaller powder charge. Also, canister projectiles contained more small balls than other types of canister. Howitzers were useful in defending fortifications and causing disorder within with in an attacking force. Industry : Manufacturing goods from raw materials, such as cloth from cotton or machine parts from iron.
Infantry : A branch of the military in which soldiers traveled and fought on foot. Hunley - the first successful submarine. For example, Robert E. Juggernaut : pronounced juhg-er-nawt An overwhelming, advancing force that crushes or seems to crush everything in its path. The artillery piece could be attached to the limber, which would allow both to be pulled by a team of horses.
Also verb: The practice of attaching a piece of artillery to the limber that holds its ammunition.data.flinttworks.kayak.rocks/a-smaller-country.php
First English Civil War
It presented two or three sides to the enemy but the rear was open to friendly lines. It became a symbolic division between free states and slave states.
Militia : Troops, like the National Guard, who are only called out to defend the land in an emergency. The bullet was designed for muzzle-loading rifle-muskets. It was small enough to load quickly, and had a special feature that let it take advantage of a rifled-barrel.
When the rifle-musket was fired, expanding gas from the gunpowder blast was caught in the hollow base of the bullet forcing it against the rifled grooves inside the barrel. Monitor : Originally, the U. Monitor fought the C. Virginia formerly the U. With its 13 inch bore it was capable of launching two hundred pound shells. Musket : A smoothbore firearm fired from the shoulder. Thrust from exploding powder shoots the bullet forward like a chest pass in basketball.
Muzzle-loading : Muzzle-loading muskets or rifle muskets had to be loaded from the end by putting the gunpowder and the bullet or ball down the barrel.
This lighter, more maneuverable field artillery piece fired 12 pound projectiles and was very popular with both Federal and Confederate armies. His tactics were brilliant for the technology of warfare at the time he was fighting. Navy : A branch of the military using ships to conduct warfare.
North : Also called the Union or the United States the North was the part of the country that remained loyal to the Federal government during the Civil War. West Virginia became a Northern state in and California and Oregon were also officially Northern but they had little direct involvement in the War.
Parole : A pledge by a prisoner of war or a defeated soldier not to bear arms. When prisoners were returned to their own side during the War in exchange for men their side had captured the parole was no longer in effect and they were allowed to pick up their weapons and fight. When the South lost the War and the Confederate armies gave their parole they promised never to bear weapons against the Union again.
Parrott guns were used by both the Army and the Navy, and ranged from pounders to pounders. Percussion Arm : A musket or rifle-musket that requires a cap to fire. A tiny cap is placed on the gun so that when a trigger is pulled, the hammer strikes the cap.
The chemical in the cap fulminate of mercury ignites and flame shoots into the chamber that holds the gunpowder. Percussion means striking—a drum is a percussion instrument and a gun that uses a hammer to strike a cap is a percussion arm.
English Civil War Fortifications –51 - Osprey Publishing
Picket : Soldiers posted on guard ahead of a main force. Pickets included about 40 or 50 men each. Several pickets would form a rough line in front of the main army's camp. In case of enemy attack, the pickets usually would have time to warn the rest of the force. Pontoon bridges were extremely important to the outcome of several battles, including Fredericksburg.
Popular Sovereignty : pronounced sov-rin-tee This doctrine was prominent during the debate over slavery in the territories. Popular sovereignty said that the people of each territory should be able to decide for themselves if slavery should be allowed in their territory when it became a state. Occasionally ramparts might be constructed of other materials, such as sandbags. Ratify : To formally approve or sanction. Rebel Yell : A high-pitched cry that Confederate soldiers would shout when attacking. Redan : pronounced ri-dan A fortification with two parapets or low walls whose faces unite to form a salient angle towards the enemy.
That is, they form a point that juts out past the rest of the defensive line of works. While redoubts could be very useful, one key weakness was that each protruding angle was a salient.
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This meant that the redoubt would be susceptible to enfilading fire. A redoubt could also extend from a permanent fortress. Reinforcements : Troops sent to strengthen a fighting force by adding an additional number of fresh soldiers. Regiment : The basic unit of the Civil War soldiers, usually made up of 1, to 1, men. Regiments were usually designated by state and number as in 20th Maine.
Republican Party : A political party created in the s to prevent the spread of slavery to the territories.
Eventually Republicans came to oppose the entire existence of slavery. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president. Very few Southerners were Republicans. Revetments could be made of items such as sandbags, fascines, gabions, brick, stone, and so on. Revolver : A handheld firearm with a chamber to hold multiple bullets usually 6. The chamber turns so that each bullet can be fired in succession without reloading.
Revenue Cutter: This term applies to fast ships that were used to patrol the seas and Great Lakes to prevent smuggling and impose importation and custom fees. Revenue cutters would go on to become the United States Coast Guard. Rifle-Musket : The common weapon of the Civil War infantryman, it was a firearm fired from the shoulder.
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It differed from a regular musket by the grooves called rifling cut into the inside of the barrel. When the exploding powder thrusts the bullet forward, the grooves in the barrel make it spin, just like a football spirals through the air. Rifle-muskets were more accurate and had a longer range than smoothbore weapons. Rifle pits were trenches with earth mounded up at the end as protection from enemy fire.
A soldier lay in the trench and fired from a prone position. Rifled : A gun barrel is rifled when it has grooves called rifling cut into the inside of the barrel for longer range and more accurate firing. Salient: pronounced SAY-lee-uhnt A part of a defensive line of works or a fortification that juts out from the main line towards the enemy. Salients can be very vulnerable to because they may be attacked from multiple sides. This curing process allowed the pork to last a very long time without the need for refrigeration.
As a result, salt pork became a common food issued to soldiers by both the North and the South. Scurvy : pronounced SKUR-vee A disease caused by lack of ascorbic acid found in fresh fruits and vegetables. Its symptoms include spongy gums, loose teeth, and bleeding into the skin and mucous membranes.
Related Fortress 9: English Civil War Fortifications
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