Then we conducted a one-way analysis of variance ANOVA to determine if there were statistical differences between preservice training groups and their comfort in English and use of non-English languages, followed by Bonferroni-adjusted post-hoc tests to examine pair-wise differences. Figure 2. Our first research question sought to determine the reported levels of comfort with the English language, use of English language, and teacher training of Nigerien EFL teachers. We conducted a descriptive analysis.
August 2018 – Volume 22, Number 2
In all, participants responded to the question inquiring about their comfort level with English. Responses are shown in Figure 2 and include. We also asked teachers to indicate their preservice teacher training. Teachers were asked to select all that apply, so some teachers selected more than one option. In total, Figure 3. Percent of Class Time Spent in non-English. Figure 4. Preservice Teacher Training. Our second research question asks if there is a relationship between Nigerien EFL teachers expressed comfort level of English, their use of English in their classes, and teacher training.
There were no significant correlations between comfort level in English and instructional practices. Next, we examined cross-tabs of comfort in English and the use of non-English languages in relation to preservice teacher training. Results can be seen in Tables 1 and 2. The analyses examining the preservice training group differences in comfort in English and the use of non-English languages in instruction are illustrated in Tables 3 through 7. We examined the relationship between comfort in English and teacher career satisfaction.
Three of the five pairs showed statistically significant relationships. Data presented in this study lead us to three key findings. First, teacher training is inconsistent and, in some cases, non-existent among EFL teachers in Niger. Second, teachers that were more comfortable in speaking English were more satisfied with their career choice. Third, Nigerien EFL teachers do not use English in their classrooms a majority of the instructional time. These findings indicate how teacher training can be constructed to support EFL teachers in Niger and other similar situations.
Descriptive data describe the difficulties of teachers in Niger. The descriptive statistics paint a picture of varied levels of comfort in English amongst EFL teachers. These differences might mean, in turn, that EFL teachers in Niger provide unequal opportunities of learning for the students, something that needs further explanation. The same picture of varied levels of English use in class and of teacher training has been reported.
One in five Nigerien teachers had no preservice teacher training, while only EFL teachers with no formal training were less comfortable in speaking English than their colleagues with English degrees, teaching degrees, and training in other countries. Additionally, teachers with higher levels of English were more satisfied in their choice of teaching career. For Niger, and other similar countries with limited resources and difficulty finding qualified EFL teachers, focusing on retention of teachers can be a way of alleviating teacher shortages.
Through the recruitment of proficient English speakers, these countries can limit the need to hire as many new teachers in the future. Given the difficulty of finding well-qualified EFL teachers in-country for developing countries, officials may need to consider looking externally for teachers. This survey revealed interesting patterns related to the use of the non-English languages in EFL classrooms. With the demonstrated benefits of conducting language instruction in the target language van Patten, this is concerning. However, the use of non-English languages was not associated with any of the training groups.
This result went against our hypothesis, and we can only guess at why this may be the case. It is possible that the instructional environment in schools provides a stronger influence on instructional methods than does comfort in the target language.
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Therefore, improvement in this area cannot be targeted at a specific group but would require professional development provided to all EFL teachers. As is the case in all research, there are limitations that need to be addressed for this study. The key limitations we need to examine include the cross-sectional nature of the survey and the lack of contextual information. This cross-sectional survey negates our ability to examine changes in individual teachers over time. This study examined the relationship between preservice training and teaching knowledge and practices.
Our study also did not have the resources to explore the individual teaching situations of the teachers. It provides a snapshot of specific knowledge and practices related to training and career satisfaction, but it does not account for how the schools where teachers work on a daily basis may impact them. Future studies should focus on the lived experience of some of the teachers in detail by asking them to share their stories about their current teaching situation and how that is related to their teacher training, comfort level in English, and career satisfaction.
In the context of global English Crystal, , world Englishes Jenkins, , and the need and desire worldwide to learn English, this study provides a glimpse of teachers in an Expanding Circle country, their perceived comfort level with English, training, and expertise. Our findings indicated that a substantial number of EFL teachers in Niger had no preservice training at all.
The EFL teachers did have varying levels of comfort in speaking English, which were associated with their preservice training. Teachers that were more comfortable in speaking English were also more satisfied with their choice of teaching as a career. However, the amount of teaching time spent in English was not associated with any training.pilbovernate.ga/map16.php
This study supports the training of preservice EFL teachers in English prior to teaching as it may improve their career satisfaction and therefore their retention in the profession. As educational policy makers decide how to disperse limited resources in Expanding Circle countries, this study provides initial guidance. The authors would like to thank Arlene Wiens, Ph. Peter Wiens , Ph. Elena Andrei , Ed. Her research interests include second language literacy, teacher education, and non-native English speaking teachers. Anassour supervises professional development programs for EFL teachers throughout Niger.
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Tsang, A. The findings suggest that learning English has a positive impact on a wide range of issues:. The study thus provides clear evidence of the varied ways in which students feel that improving their command of English makes a significant contribution to their lives.
This publication is free to download. Our Freedom of Information Publications Scheme. Help Login Sign up. The findings suggest that learning English has a positive impact on a wide range of issues: Employment prospects, performance and promotion Access to education and professional development Use of technology Leisure activities Intercultural communication Intercultural understanding Confidence Attitudes towards English and the UK Access to information Service encounters Citizenship The study thus provides clear evidence of the varied ways in which students feel that improving their command of English makes a significant contribution to their lives.
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