So, let us first cover what led up to the wars. Langer The battlecruiser was thought of as the ship that could do everything. Scout, do battle with cruisers and destroyers, protect shipping lanes and lines of communication and join the battle line and slug it out with enemy battlecruisers and battleships. Great Brittan and Germany adopted this theory, the United States Navy long debated it, but eventually gave in only to see them scraped or converted into aircraft carriers. But did the US Navy actually have a battlecruiser and not acknowledge it?
Two classes of heavy cruisers come close to fulfilling the roles of the battlecruiser.
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Those who study military history are familiar with how strict adherence to the detailed mobilization schedule of the Schlieffen Plan contributed to the beginning of World War I. Should war be deemed necessary, von Schlieffen saw it as a two-front war. Following the defeat of France, the entire German army would then face the second enemy. A Review by Brian Williams The battle of Stalingrad has always been a fascinating battle for me to study.
The German Army was still steam-rolling over the steppes of the Ukraine and seemingly unstoppable. But, unbeknownst to them, they had overstretched themselves to their ultimate breaking point. The rationale was if only they could take this last city on the western bank of the Volga, they could work on solidifying their front and move north and east. But, that determination cost the destruction of the German 6th Army, the surrounding Axis allied armies and resulted in the ultimate retreat of the entire German army.
Jonathan Bastable has written a masterful book — which could possibly one of my most favorite first-hand WWII account books in my library. It contains material that has never been published before and offers an incredible insight into the battle. It's a book that once you start reading, you won't be able to put down.
The march has since gone down as one of the most storied and controversial undertakings of the Civil War and arouses an almost mythical stature for its followers. By Robert Shawlinski and Vernon Yates Throughout the centuries, the European continent has hosted many wars of conflict, laying waste to its countryside, and killing thousands of its citizens. These outbreaks of violence came about over religion, power, and petty disagreements in wars lasting over one-hundred years in some cases.
Even though the human suffering was horrific during these battles, warfare was conducted in an almost elementary approach with strategy as an afterthought. This approach begins to change with the founding and successful expansion of the Prussian Empire across central Europe.
The Prussians brought new methods and techniques to the art of warfare through its professional application of strategy as a science and an art. The Prussian Empire during the war with the French was controlled by the then Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck even the Emperor of Prussia referred to Bismarck due to the power arrangements of the empire.
The aim of this paper is to determine how South Africans commemorate their participation in World War I, with specific reference to the battle of Delville Wood and the sinking of SS Mendi. Thereafter, it will be determined how the battle of Delville Wood and the sinking of the SS Mendi were commemorated historically.
Lastly, the paper will explore how both these events are presently commemorated in South Africa. By Edward J. Langer From the beginning of time man has been in constant conflict with his fellow man. War, death and destruction sometimes seem the norm and peace the exception.
During the 19th century into the beginning of the 20th century up to World War One, there were many wars, large and small: wars of aggression, wars of independence, civil wars, border wars and wars of imperialistic expansion. This book falls under the category of popular, as opposed to academic history, and provides an example of why military history in general, and popular military history in particular, is viewed with distain in the discipline.
While this may be objectionable to those whose interest lies in military history, the view in academic circles exists nonetheless. This book is written for a wide audience that knows little about World War I, Gallipoli, or history at all.
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Reading the reviews on Amazon. While the first person accounts provide an interesting perspective, for those who have studied World War I in general, and Gallipoli in particular, it provides little that is new. Rommel would make his name in France by living out that old maxim of war. His career and legend would begin to soar in North Africa when he arrived in March of Against incredible odds and harsh conditions, Rommel would prove again and again that an enemy can never be allowed to rest.
However, he was not the first to demonstrate that maxim to be true. He was one of those veterans who, for reasons of his own, never spoke of his military experiences unless asked a direct question concerning his service Therefore the only information immediately available to me was the sketchy memories of family members During my work life, which included USAF service, employment with various companies and operating my own businesses, I could never seem to devote the time needed to fill in the blanks Following retirement I was able to begin research starting with picking the brains of family members including my Mom A Review by Bob Seals The human cost of war has always been staggering.
Our most recent conflicts, whether described as an all-encompassing Global War on Terror, or the seemingly more politically correct Overseas Contingency Operations, are no exception to this truth. Of all services, the U. Army has paid the heaviest price since with almost 42, active, guard and reserve soldiers, killed or wounded while serving overseas, according to Department of Defense figures.
Amidst all this blood and carnage of war, some individuals arise who are seemingly able to overcome all the pain and horror that combat inflicts upon them. Ivan Castro is one such man. It is an examination of the practical aspects of intelligence and spying in history and world affairs. Hughes-Wilson is an effective writer; however, he is also verbally merciless. He has no politically correct sensibilities, and his penchant is to spare no one. The result is a strong treatment of the nature of intelligence and espionage, the second oldest profession as currently practiced, world-wide, by approximately intelligence agencies Pun, Troops armed with breech-loading infantry arms and artillery, primitive machine guns, and ironclad ships, early balloons, and trench warfare in the Civil War are cited as evidence.
In accordance with the doctrines of General Heinz Guderian , the German tanks were used in massed formations in conjunction with motorized artillery to punch holes in the enemy line and to isolate segments of the enemy, which were then surrounded and captured by motorized German infantry divisions while the tanks ranged forward to repeat the process: deep drives into enemy territory by panzer divisions were thus followed by mechanized infantry and foot soldiers.
Tested and well-trained in maneuvers, the German panzer divisions constituted a force with no equal in Europe. The German Air Force, or Luftwaffe , was also the best force of its kind in It was a ground-cooperation force designed to support the Army, but its planes were superior to nearly all Allied types. In the rearmament period from to the production of German combat aircraft steadily mounted. The table shows the production of German aircraft by years.
The standardization of engines and airframes gave the Luftwaffe an advantage over its opponents. Germany had an operational force of 1, fighters and 1, bombers in September The Allies actually had more planes in than Germany did, but their strength was made up of many different types, some of them obsolescent.
The corresponding table shows the number of first-line military aircraft available to the Allies at the outbreak of war. Great Britain, which was held back by delays in the rearmament program, was producing one modern fighter in , the Hurricane. A higher-performance fighter, the Spitfire , was just coming into production and did not enter the air war in numbers until The value of the French Air Force in was reduced by the number of obsolescent planes in its order of battle: of the fighters and nearly all of the bombers.
France was desperately trying to buy high-performance aircraft in the United States in At sea the odds against Germany were much greater in September than in August , since the Allies in had many more large surface warships than Germany had. At sea, however, there was to be no clash between the Allied and the German massed fleets but only the individual operation of German pocket battleships and commerce raiders.
When World War I ended, the experience of it seemed to vindicate the power of the defensive over the offensive. It was widely believed that a superiority in numbers of at least three to one was required for a successful offensive. Defensive concepts underlay the construction of the Maginot Line between France and Germany and of its lesser counterpart, the Siegfried Line , in the interwar years. The conduct of those far-flung operations, the sustenance of more than twenty-seven U. Moreover, a new aspect of the Pacific War has recently surfaced: the ability of the U. The signals intelligence community regarded the U.
Analysts continue to assess the data from Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm as a means of improving the military's to function efficiently in desert terrain. The information gleaned from this effort will enhance the already considerable of knowledge on the subject derived from the historical record. That record, of course, is incomplete, in that much valuable information was never and much that was has been lost or forgotten. When contributions in the latter category are located or rediscovered, they should he given the dissemination they merit.
This Leavenworth Paper contains three case studies about winter warfare drawn from twentieth century experience. It provides several valuable perspectives about this well known, but sometimes little understood subject. The seeds of this paper were first planted in early by Colonel Henry J.
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Both suggested that I do some work on the group's history; they said that it might be fun. In line with these suggestions, I hope eventually to expand my work to include a complete history of the 1st Medical Regiment-lst Medical Group from to During the Pacific war, from to , the Japanese military grew to an end strength of 7 million men.
Over the course of the war, this represented some 28 million man-years of uniformed service to the Japanese Empire. Imperial service spanned every conceivable environment, from subarctic in Manchuria to steaming rain forest in New Guinea, and every conceivable adversary, from a Soviet armored corps at Nomonhan in to isolated nationalist guerrillas in the Philippine archipelago. Moreover, there is an abundant literature in Japanese on these experiences in the form of official histories, unit histories, memoirs, biographies, and studies by scholars and journalists.
In the summer of , Allied special operations teams known as Jedburghs parachuted into occupied Europe to cooperate with resistance groups behind German lines and to aid in the advance of Allied ground forces. Each of the ninety-nine Jedburgh teams consisted of three specially trained volunteers. Clandestine operations of the kind that the Jedburghs conducted often have been recounted in memoirs and novels, but only a portion of the actual operational records have been declassified. Across the world, millions of American soldiers, sailors, and airmen joined with the fighting forces of other nations to defeat the Axis Powers.
As they did so, they wrote many new chapters in the history of coalition warfare and combined operations. This work offers a historical case that illuminates current thinking about future campaigns in which coordination among all domains will be critical for success. It outlines the planning involved in the early stages and showcases some of the difficulties involved with implementing the command guidance.
It is not intended to be a comprehensive account of World War II Ranger operations, for such a study would have to include numerous minor actions that are too poorly documented to be studied to advantage. Military history is the peacetime laboratory for the professional soldier. As duPicq reminds us, "only study of the past can give us a sense of reality and show us how the soldier will fight in the future. Publication and dissemination of tactical battle studies is the central focus of the Combat Studies Institute and the Leavenworth Paper series.
In , to end the Pacific war, American strategic plans foresaw an invasion of Japan's heavily defended home islands. Although precluded by war's end, preparations for both were extensive. Principles of War is a reprinted translation from the Japanese. Knowing the nature of the original version and being keenly aware of the role played by historical examples, Colonel Matsumura suggested Principles of War be shared with a larger, English speaking audience.
Operation Urgent Fury, conducted in October , focused international attention on the U. Army Rangers. This tough, highly mobile force performed an airborne-airland assault into Grenada on short notice and quickly seized objectives while sustaining only Eimited casualties. On 3 December , the War Department inaugurated a military concept unique to the U.
Army-the tank destroyer. Born of a desperate need to counter the mechanized might of the so-called blitzkrieg, tank destroyer doctrine involved the pooling of antitank weapons into battalion. Alfred Cornebise's biography of BG Frank "Pinkie" Dorn offers a case study of the importance of cultural immersion and foreign language skills in creating flexible and adaptable officers who can successfully work with Allied forces to achieve success in wartime. But it was Dorn's years of service as an "Old China Hand," that enabled him to successfully train, equip, advise, and eventually lead Allied forces in large-scale combat operations.
Thus, Dorn's life serves as a model for both Foreign Area Officers FAOs who immerse themselves in a foreign language and culture in order to facilitate military cooperation in times of crisis, as well as Soldiers of the new Security Force Assistance Brigades SFABs tasked with training host-nation forces.
In his classic work, On War, Carl von Clausewitz wrote, "AS we shall show, defense is a stronger farm of fighting than attack. The offensive spirit swept through European armies and manifested itself in the regulations, plans, and mentality of those armies. One of the more perplexing problems contemporary military planners face is that of conducting night operations. Psychologically, night has atways been a realm of the unknown and the uncertain, magnified by imaginatron. Whrle dealing with this psychological barrrer to the conduct of battle at nrght, the soldier must also cope with a myrrad of more tangrbfe problems.
Coordination of forces in battle at night tests the mettle of the most proficient leader and the most hrghly trained force.
Related Standing Fast: German Defensive Doctrine On The Russian Front During World War Ii
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