This book is composed of five parts encompassing 18 chapters that focus on the human health consequences of marijuana consumption. Part I discusses the cytogenetic effects of marijuana, with an emphasis on its cell-damaging, genotoxic, and teratogenic effects. Part II describes the interaction of marijuana products on the T-lymphocytes of man and Part III examines the effects of marijuana smoking on male reproduction, specifically on plasma testosterone level.
Part IV investigates the central nervous system damage associated with marijuana use and looks into some of the methodological problems arising at the general issues of central nervous system dysfunction as these relate to marijuana consumption. Part V focuses on the psychiatric consequences of different degrees of marijuana use.
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View on ScienceDirect. Editors: Jared Tinklenberg. Imprint: Academic Press. Published Date: 1st January The protective effects of parental support on depressive symptoms Gore and Aseltine, ; Miller and Taylor, and substance use Ralston et al. Yet, the links between family resources, depression, and substance use may depend on gender, race, and socioeconomic status Miller and Taylor, This study demonstrated the unique role of gender in shaping the effect of parenting on changes in depression and substance use of African American adolescents.
Marijuana use is associated with depression Degenhardt et al. Understanding how gender moderates the link between symptoms of depression and marijuana use may inform design and evaluation of prevention and treatment programs for African American adolescents. According to the literature, comorbid depression is associated with earlier onset of drug use Rohde et al. Among those who are depressed, comorbid substance use is a predictor of longer depressive episodes Riggs et al.
Extending the literature on how gender alters risk of comorbidity between depression and marijuana use may inform the policies and programs that can be used for prevention and treatment of adolescents that present with comorbid depression and marijuana use. Our findings are particularly important because marijuana is the most commonly used drug in adolescence CDC, ; Miech et al. These transition periods are the stages of identity development, and are characterized by change and exploration Arnett, In these periods, individuals begin managing new roles and responsibilities Arnett, These findings have important implications particularly because of the possibility of an increase in availability of marijuana due to legalization of medical marijuana in the United States McKenna, ; Onders et al.
Adolescents may self-medicate using marijuana to cope with the changes and new responsibilities that are a part of their transition into and from adolescence Chen and Kandel, Adolescents may also use marijuana under influence of their peers Dishion and Loeber, ; Chabrol et al. Our findings suggest that African American male adolescents who use marijuana should be screened for depression.donors.mrcb.org.uk/scrum-your-quick-start-guide-to.php
Neurocognitive Functioning and Cannabis Use in Schizophrenia
Evidence-based interventions and programs that can prevent substance use in adolescents exist Griffin and Botvin, Programs should promote parental support that African American adolescents receive Caldwell et al. Evidence-based interventions should be widely implemented in the communities where most at risk adolescents live Hawkins et al. The current study has a few limitations.
First and foremost, this study did not enroll a random sample of adolescents. The study did not use a probability sampling framework and the sample was drawn from a single city in Midwest. As a result, our findings are not generalizable to all African American adolescents in the United States. Yet, so few studies have focused on the research questions addressed in the current study. The findings are a useful early step and suggest that more representative sample studies would be a useful next step. Second, the data were old and much has changed regarding psychological impact of marijuana use in adolescents.
Legalization of medical marijuana in some US states may have reduced stigma associated with its use. There is a need to replicate these findings in newer data sets. Third, all variables in this study were conceptualized and measured at the individual level, and higher-level ecological factors availability and acceptability of marijuana, area level socioeconomic status, and racial composition of the neighborhood were not included. This may be especially important for studies on non-majority adolescents, as experiences of discrimination may weigh on them and influence both their depression and substance use.
Nevertheless, our study suggests that individual level factors matter and that examining larger structural factors associated with them may be a vital next step for understanding the process by which individual behaviors manifest themselves. Fourth, our parental support measure was limited to maternal support, as a considerable proportion of our adolescents were not in relation with their fathers. We do know that fathers play a vital role in adolescent development Salem et al. Yet, the study of mother support adds to our vast knowledge about her vital role in adolescent development.
Fifth, attrition was not at random, and individuals who stayed in the study had lower age, were more often females, more frequently lived in an intact family, and used less marijuana at baseline. Despite these limitations, the current study makes a significant contribution to the literature. To conclude, the findings presented here revealed that male and female African American adolescents differ in the reciprocal associations between marijuana use and depressive symptoms. Male African American adolescents who use marijuana may be at higher risk of elevated depressive symptoms over time.
As a result, male African American adolescents who use marijuana may benefit from combined programs that simultaneously treat depression. Necessity for such combined programs is less evident for female African American adolescents, whose marijuana use and depressive symptoms seem to be unrelated. Maternal support was also differently linked to marijuana use and depressive symptoms among male and female African American adolescents. As a result, male and female African American adolescents may differently benefit from programs that enhance maternal social support.
The original idea of this analysis was developed by SA. SA also analyzed the data and drafted the manuscript. All authors confirmed the final version of the manuscript. SA was supported by the Heinz C. DA to MZ. The content of this article does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the National Institute on Drug Abuse.
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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