Heat-shock proteins as molecular chaperons. European Journal of Biochemistry. Bjellqvist B. A nonlinear wide-range immobilized pH gradient for two-dimensional electrophoresis and its definition in a relevant pH scale. Berry E. Cold temperature adaptation and growth of microorganisms.
Journal of Food Protection. Burford E. Geomycology: fungi in mineral substrata. Casanueva A. Trends in Microbiology. Chin J. Solutes determine the temperature windows for microbial survival and growth. Collins T. Fundamentals of cold-adapted enzymes. In: Margesin R. Psychrophiles: from biodiversity to biotechnology. Springer; Berlin: D'Amico S.
Psychrophilic microorganisms: challenges for life. EMBO Reports. Dadachova E. Ionizing radiation changes the electronic properties of melanin and enhances the growth of melanized fungi. PLoS One. Dantigny P. Mould germination: data treatment and modeling. International Journal of Food Microbiology. De Cross J. Cold-induced proteins in cold-active isolates of the insect-pathogenic fungus Metharhizium anisopliae. Mycological Research. Evolution of black yeasts: possible adaptation to the human host.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. Black Fungal Extremes. Studies in Mycology. The Netherlands. Controlling gene expression in response to stress. Nature Reviews Genetics. Deegenaars M. Heat shock response in psychrophilic and psychrotrophic yeast from Antarctica. Feller G. Psychrophilic enzymes: hot topics in cold adaptation. Nature Reviews Microbiology. Friedmann E. Endolithic microorganism in the antartic Cold Desert. Gocheva Y. Cell response of Antarctic and temperate strains of Penicillium spp. Extremotolerance in fungi: evolution on the edge. Evolution of fungal pathogens in domestic environments?
Fungal Biology. Grant W. Life at low water activity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Gunde-Cimerman N. Hypersaline waters in salterns — natural ecological niches for halophilic black yeasts. Haslbeck M. Some like it hot: the structure and function of small heat-shock proteins. Hofmann G. Isola D. Sample preparation and 2-DE procedure for protein expression profiling of black microcolonial fungi. Jami M. Proteome analysis of the Penicillin producer Penicillium chrysogenum : Characterization of protein changes during the industrial strain improvement.
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics. The Penicillium chrysogenum extracellular proteome. Conversion from a food-rotting strain to a versatile cell factory for white biotechnology. Jia Z. Antifreeze proteins: an unusual receptor-ligand interaction. Trends in Biochemical Science. Jones P.
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Induction of proteins in response to low temperature in Escherichia coli. Journal of Bacteriology. Kraus P. Coping with stress: calmodulin and calcineurin in model and pathogenic fungi. Biochemical and Biophisical Research Communications. Mafart P. Effect of pH on the heat resistance of spores: comparison of two models. Maheshwari R. Thermophilic fungi: their physiology and enzymes. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. Margesin R. Cold-loving microbes, plants, and animals-fundamental and applied aspects. Matos T. High prevalence of the neurotrope Exophiala dermatidis and related oligotrophic black yeasts in sauna facilities.
David : It is the official journal of the International Mycological Association providing, in addition to original research papers regarded as of wide interest to mycologists, reports and news or concerning activities of the IMA and member organizations, and also with the unique role as the place where proposals to modify the international rules on the naming of fungi must be published, as are lists of names for protection. Wieland : The beauty of fungi, their diversity in color and form are an art in itself. I work with both environmental and pathogenic fungi and both overlap.
My work is directed towards understanding the spread of those fungi globally and this gets me in contact with a very diverse range of people in many places of the globe. It excites me to be able to help to be part of a big picture, which hopefully helps to get better diagnostics and treatments of fungal infections, improving and saving lives. My work has a direct impact on the quality of human life.
David : The sheer enormity of fungal diversity. How little we know and what unexpected fungi turn up. When I make a microscope slide of some little black dot it is quite a thrill to see something no-one ever appears to have seen and described before, even after all my years of study. Soil Biol Biochem. Frank H. Crawford , b Sigrid Neuhauser , c Linda E. Henderson , a and Osu Lilje a. John W. Linda E. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Gleason: ua. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Zoosporic true fungi have frequently been identified in samples from soil and freshwater ecosystems using baiting and molecular techniques. Keywords: Zoosporic true fungi, Chytrids, Soil structure, Adaptations to soil environment, Three-dimensional visualisation. Introduction Soil ecosystems provide excellent habitats for a large number of species of organisms from all domains of life including archaea, bacteria, fungi, protists, animals and plants. Zoosporic true fungi and their special features 2.
The life cycle The asexual life cycle of zoosporic true fungi in liquid culture, on solid growth media and on solid substrates submerged in water will be described here. Nutrition There is no evidence that zoosporic true fungi have phagotrophic nutrition during any stage of their life cycle Gleason and Lilje, Ecological strategies Three ecological strategies of true fungi are recognized by Dix and Webster : i competitive C-selected ; ii stress-tolerant S-selected , and iii ruderal R-selected.
Zoosporic true fungi and the abiotic environment in soils 3. Physical characteristics of the soil 3. Soil layers Many substrates for the growth of microorganisms can be found on the surface of soils. Soil structure In general, data from soil profiles, types of vegetation present, geological formations from which the soil is derived and the chemical characteristics of soil samples provide little useful information for characterization of microscale habitats, because soil is a heterogeneous medium. Zoosporic true fungi and the biotic environment 4.
Zoosporic true fungi and the microbial loop in soil The concept of the microbial loop was originally proposed to describe the roles of bacteria in aquatic food webs. Application of specific resource seeking strategies in soil ecosystems One important resource seeking strategy is the ability of zoospores to locate utilizable carbon sources quickly. Future perspectives Recent advances in conventional and synchrotron-based X-ray instrumentation and molecular techniques such as FISH have provided new opportunities for soil microbiologists to examine the fungal—mineral interface.
Conclusions A thorough knowledge of the structure of soil at the microscale level is necessary for studying the distribution of assemblages of zoosporic true fungi along temporal and spatial gradients.
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Clearance of aquatic hyphomycete spores by a benthic suspension feeder. Limnology and Oceanography. Baker K. Environmental and spatial characterisation of bacterial community composition in soil to inform sampling strategies. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. Barr D. Studies on Rhizophydium and Phlyctochytrium Chytridiales.
Comparative morphology. Canadian Journal of Botany. Comparative physiology. Phlyctochytrium reinboldtae Chytridiales : morphology and physiology. Isolation, culture and identification of Chytridiales, Spizellomycetales and Hyphochytriales. In: Fuller M. Zoosporic Fungi in Teaching and Research. In: McLaughlin D. The Mycota, Part A. Barstow W. The ultrastructure of cell wall formation and of gamma particles during encystment of Allomyces macrogynus zoospores. Archives of Microbiology. Beakes G. Comparative ultrastructural ontogeny of zoosporangia of Zygorhizidium affluens and Z.
Mycological Research. Bernstein L. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. Bonkowski M. Protozoa and plant growth: the microbial loop in soil revisited. New Phytologist. Bostick L. Studies of the morphology of Chytriomyces hyalinus. Cantino E. Form and function in chytridiomycete spores, with emphasis upon Blastocladiella emersonii. In: Weber D. The Fungal Spore, Form and Function. Carson J. Low pore connectivity increases bacterial diversity in soil.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Couch J. Technic for collection, isolation and culture of chytrids. Czeczuga B. Aquatic zoosporic fungi from baited spores of cryptogams. Fungal Diversity. Davies D. Influence of drying on the survival of anaerobic fungi in rumen digesta and faeces of cattle. Deacon J. Oriented zoospore attachment and cyst germination in Catenaria anguillulae , a facultative endoparasite of nematodes.
Deacon L. Simultaneous preservation of soil structural properties and phospholipid profiles: a comparison of three drying techniques. Dessaux Y.
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Digby A. Some fungi in the Chytridiomycota can assimilate both inorganic and organic sources of nitrogen. Fungal Ecology. Dix N. Dogma I. Isolation and pure culture techniques for monocentric chytridiomycetes. Nova Hedwigia.
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Evans T. Ants and termites increase crop yield in a dry climate. Nature Communications. Feeney D. Three-dimensional microorganization of the soil-root-microbe system. Microbial Ecology. Feltham D. Journal of Biological Systems.
Freeman K. Evidence that chytrids dominate fungal communities at high-elevation soils. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Gleason F. Some aerobic Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota can survive but cannot grow under anaerobic conditions. Australasian Mycologist. The ecology of chytrids in aquatic ecosystems: roles in food web dynamics.
Fungal Biology Reviews. Structure and function of fungal zoospores: ecological implications. Can zoosporic true fungi grow or survive in extreme or stressful environments? Blastocladian parasites of invertebrates. Patterns of utilization of different carbon sources by some Chytridiomycota.
Goldstein S. Degradation of pollen by phycomycetes. Grose M. Spatial heterogeneity of soil water around single roots: use of CT-scanning to predict fungal growth in the rhizosphere. Gutman J. The host-range of Paraphysoderma sedebokerensis , a chytrid that infects Haematococcus fluvialis. European Journal of Phycology. Hallett P. Disentangling the impact of AM fungi versus roots on soil structure and water transport. Hansel C. Changes in bacterial and archael community structure and functional diversity along a geochemically variable soil profile. Hapca S. Movement of the nematode, Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, in a structurally heterogeneous environment.
Hartwright L. Fungal Biology. Held A. Attraction and attachment of zoospores of the parasitic chytrid Rozellla allomyces in response to host-dependent factors. Rozella and Rozellopsis : naked endoparasitic fungi which dress-up as their hosts. Botanical Review. Hinsinger P. Rhizosphere: biophysics, biogeochemistry and ecological relevance. Hoffland E.
Feldspar tunneling by fungi along natural productivity gradients. James T. Jobard M. Journal of Microbiological Methods. Joblin K. Physical disruption of plant fibre by rumen fungi of the Sphaeromonas group. In: Nolan J. Jones D.
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Carbon flow in the rhizosphere: carbon trading at the soil-root interface. Jones M. Discovery of novel intermediate forms redefines the fungal tree of life. Karling J. Parasitism among the chytrids. American Journal of Botany. Kagami M. Parasitic chytrids: their effects on phytoplankton communities and food-web dynamics. Koch W. Studies with the motile cells of chytrids. Planonts in the experimental taxonomy of aquatic phycomycetes. Kropp D. Selective transport of nutrients via the rhizoids of the water mold Blastocladiella emersonii.
Journal of Bacteriology. Lara E. The environmental clade LKM11 and Rozella from the deepest branching clade of fungi. Lee E. Chytrid distribution in diverse boreal Manitoba sites. Korean Journal of Biological Sciences. Unveiling fungal zooflagellates as members of freshwater picoeukaryotes: evidence from a molecular diversity study in a deep meromictic lake. Environmental Microbiology. Letcher P. Distribution of zoosporic fungi in forest soils of the Blue Ridge and Appalachian Mountains of Virginia.
Frequency and distribution patterns of zoosporic fungi from moss-covered and exposed forest soils. Liggenstoffer A.
Phylogenetic diversity and community structure of anaerobic gut fungi phylum Neocallimastigomycota in ruminant and non-ruminant herbivores. Lilje O. Fluctuation in Rhizophydium sp. AUS 6 zoospore production and biomass during colony formation. Lozupone C. Molecular and cultural assessment of chytrid and Spizellomyces populations in grassland soils.
Characteristics of Fungi
Machlis L. Zoospore chemotaxis in the watermold Allomyces. Physiologia Plantarum. Marano A. Rhizophlyctis rosea in soil: frequency, abundance and density of colonization of baits under different temperature treatments in the laboratory. Midgley D. Access to organic and insoluble sources of phosphorus varies among soil Chytridiomycota. Mitchell R. Selective accumulation of zoospores of Chytridiomycetes and Oomycetes on cellulose and chitin. Transactions British Mycological Society.
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